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European Researcher. Series A – международный научный журнал по социальным наукам

E-ISSN 2224-0136

Периодичность – 1 раз в 6 месяцев.
Издается с 2010 года.

3 September 30, 2020


1. Reyhan Canavar, Filiz Katman
Post 9/11: Anti-Islam Discourse on Terrorism and Its Implications on Counter-Terrorism, Human Rights and National Security in the Netherlands

European Researcher. Series A, 2020, 11(3): 135-149.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2020.3.135CrossRef

In the aftermath of 9/11 attacks, many European governments have been dictated by a state-centric discourse on terrorism in which human rights have taken a backseat to state security. In doing so, civil liberties have been trade-off for the stake of state survival. In particular, European Muslims have been direct victim of these policies as they have been subject to repressive state practices, which are most often justified under the guise of war on terror. However, repression usually hit hard back since the ones who fall victim for those policies become more prone to take up radical thought, and thus become more willing to engage in terrorist activities, with the aim to take revenge. Consequently, in the long run, this may aggregate the threat of terrorism, and thus may pose a greater threat to the survival of the state. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to break free from a state-centric discourse on terrorism to move towards a human right framework in which terrorism and its responses are approached with all its consequences on state behavior, human security and state survival. The study consists of case-study, which is based on a qualitative research method, whereby twelve peoples were interviewed. It examined the link between counter-terrorism and human rights violations, within the Dutch context. To be more precise, it examined whether the Dutch anti-terror policies infringes on civil liberties and points out the long-term effects on the national security. The results have shown that the Dutch counter-terrorism measures are at odd with the human rights. In particular, the Dutch Muslim seems to be hit the most ever since the political debates around terrorism are dictated by an anti-Islamic political discourse. However, the securitization of the Islam has led to false security narratives, and paved way for extreme proposals to stop Islamification. In this way, the government have provided the base for radicalization within own group. Consequently, this have led to a dichotomy between Muslim and non-Muslim groups, which have crashed the togetherness of the society and and resulted in a vicious circle in which terrorism has feed itself, and with that endangered the national security even further.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1602117828.pdf
Number of views: 411      Download in PDF

2. Otabek Makhmudov
The Toledo School – Early Center of Translation in Medieval Europe

European Researcher. Series A, 2020, 11(3): 150-158.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2020.3.150CrossRef

In article on the basis of careful analysis of the scientific literature devoted to history of the translations in Europe of the XII–XIII centuries, scientific and methodological basis of views about the stages of school activities Toledo, staff, tasks, as well as translators and scholars working in the school and on this basis it is proved that the Toledo school is the logical beginning of the Renaissance of the West revealed. As a result of the analysis of political, social and cultural processes that took place in the VIIΙ–ΧΙΙ centuries on the Iberian Peninsula, the historical factors that influenced the formation of the Toledo school are established, and it is also proved that the period of mutual synthesis of East and West cultures was the main historical factor in the formation of the school. As well as features of the method of translation «Arab→Castilian→Latin», «Arab→Hebrew→Latin», «Arab→Latin», «Castilian→Latin» (proverbially, fluently, academically, translation from a mediocre language), which operated in the Toledo school, are indicated. The purpose of the article is to reveal the place of the Toledo school as an early center of translation in Medieval Europe. The object of the research is a translation school that operated in the XII–XIII centuries in the Spanish city of Toledo. The subject of research is the history of formation and development of the school of Toledo, the work of translators operating in the school, the established translations, the processes associated with studying in school scientific heritage of scientists of the Muslim East. The research uses such methods as the principle of historicism, comparative analysis, systematization, classification, and problem-chronological approach. This research was performed as part of a doctoral (DSc) dissertation on the topic: «Studying the scientific heritage of East scholars in the translation centers of medieval Europe».

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1602118220.pdf
Number of views: 423      Download in PDF

3. Yuri A. Privalov, Michael I. Ojovan, Mikhail B. Loshchinin
How to Return the Sociology and Economics to the Family of Objective Sciences? Criticism of the Current State of Humanitarian Knowledge. Part I

European Researcher. Series A, 2020, 11(3): 159-208.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2020.3.159CrossRef

Socio-economic science has not revealed the objective structure of society: it has not recognized and does not study the objective unavoidable poverty, ignores the working class, and has not established the objective properties of the hierarchy of power. The objective boundaries between poverty and prosperity, between prosperity and luxury are undisclosed, which discredits the social policy of states. Social science imposes on society the subjective criteria of poverty, a fictitious category of the middle class, and false parameters of inequality, designed not to identify, but to mask huge social problems. Humanitarian science has not clarified the content of socio-economic relations, including solving the problem of exploitation, which has brought incalculable sacrifices to the world. Socio-economic science has withdrawn itself from the development of ethics, effectively losing the right to be called humanitarian. Socio-economic knowledge limited itself to a special status and self-isolated itself from the family of objective sciences, did not find the basic empirical phenomena, and eventually turned out to be a fruitless non-empirical branch. Within the framework of humanitarian knowledge, there are no fundamental studies aimed at finding the relationships of nodal categories and general laws, including the topology of the socio-economic space, the ignorance of which is destructive for developed science. There are no theories of the most important categories including family, capital and capitalism in the humanities, there is no analytical formula where dimensional categories are linked in a stable manner. Socio-economic knowledge did not develop the theory of social evolution and was unable to understand the phenomena of historical degradation of the labor communities and demographic transition – the most tragic events in modern human history.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1602597682.pdf
Number of views: 425      Download in PDF

4. Khabiba Zhurabekova
Youth Problems in the Sphere of Interpersonal Relations

European Researcher. Series A, 2020, 11(3): 209-214.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2020.3.209CrossRef

With the strengthening of the development of information technologies and the possibilities of the Internet, live communication between people is increasingly exposed to social dangers. Mutual understanding between individuals is becoming an acute problem in interpersonal relationships. Young people today are more friends with the virtual world than with family and close friends from their environment. This phenomenon can lead to mental devastation of the personality and an increase in stress. This research is aimed at studying the causes and conditions for the development of relationships between living people as mutual understanding and compassion, which are always important spiritual values of interpersonal relationships. The factors that can negatively affect the upbringing of young people are considered and the need to always consider the problem of upbringing high moral and socially competent youth as an urgent problem is analyzed. The degradation of family relationships between parents and the gradual growth of single-parent families negatively affect the upbringing of the child. Preparing young people for family life is one of the important tasks of every society. If every child is brought up in a complete family – surrounded by parents and close relatives, he will easily find his place in society in the future and he himself also tries to create the same complete family.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1602118000.pdf
Number of views: 406      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1602597693.pdf
Number of views: 490      Download in PDF

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