Abstract: Since the collapse of the central government in the early 1991, the country experienced prolonged civil war and chaos which has taken almost two decades. Destruction of state structures accompanied by huge violation of human rights subjected to women and girls. The civil war same as it affects people negatively, it also positively transforms societies which is the case of Somali women who acquired new roles and responsibilities during the decades of war. On the other hand, in post-conflict settings new government structures are established with constitution being adopted. Social, political and economic transformation occurs within the post-conflict spaces. Based on this setting, this paper is aimed to examine the extent of human rights violations specifically subjected to women and girls. It also traces the role of Somali women played during the conflict particularly their role in taking part of peace building efforts of the country. The study further evaluates if any progress is being made in regard to women political participation in post-conflict period with analysis on the issues preventing women to fully participate in Somali politics.
Abstract: The religious phenomenon represented a factor that has contributed to complicating the political crisis in Yemen, since the outbreak of the youth revolution in February 2011, within the Arab Spring Uprisings that swept a number of Arab countries, and demanded the departure of President Saleh's regime and handover of power. The Houthi movement (Ansar Allah) has emerged as a clear example of the effect of the religious phenomenon on the paths of the political crisis in Yemen. The Houthi movement, although it has political goals represented in controlling power and wealth, has relied on a religious ideology, adopted religious slogans and presented a religious discourse through which it was able to collects huge funds and recruits thousands for its favor and benefits from them in its battles, prolonging the crisis, and consequently improving the conditions of negotiation with the parties fighting it. This article aims to understand the extent of the influence of the Houthi movement, as a model for the religious phenomenon, on the course of the crisis in Yemen, starting with the youth uprising in 2011 and then the coup against the legitimate government and control of the state institutions until today.
Abstract: The advent of social media is changing the view of marketing and thus of political marketing as a part of it. This review paper provides information on the real impact of social media on political marketing today in 2020, analyzing the impact of social media on political marketing through an analysis of 47 articles published in six renowned journals, between 2010 and 2020. The article provides answers for which parts of the world were the first to talk about it, through which social media tools, which institutions and finally which authors made the most impact. The most researched topics and subcategories are analyzed, and which keywords are the most common repetition. Trends in the growth of social media’s influence on modern political marketing have been measured through the number of articles published in the years starting from 2010 to the present. When authors compare the number of articles written in the initial research interval in 2010 and today in 2020, it is noticeable how the number of articles has increased and given increasing importance to social media in modern political marketing management. This directly demonstrates a shift in awareness in modern political marketing towards social media. The biggest findings are thought to be the emergence and expansion of this topic on US soil, with the emergence of political figures such as President Obama and continued through the work and activities of President Trump. The most used tools for this work are Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. These tools were mostly used for advertising campaigns during elections time. After these events, the spread of influence in Europe is noticeable, and it is very important to emphasize that more and more articles are appearing year by year, which provides space for new researchers to continue their work in this field.
World History and Societal Evolution. Historical Epochs and Psychological Stages
European Researcher. Series A. 2021. 12(1): 38-58.
Abstract: Historical research is combined to developmental psychology and Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology. It will be shown that the empirical data that evidence greater psychological differences between premodern and modern peoples can be applied to the study of history generally. The differences regarding mind, language, worldview, religion, literature, and sciences between nature peoples, archaic kingdoms, ancient civilizations, and the modern industrial society can be connected to certain and evidencable psychological stage differences. Data are presented that reveal continuous psychological stage development through the four historical epochs. Ancient Egpty lies in the middle between nature peoples and post-axial civilizations, in terms of developmental stages. The post-axial civilizations again are more developed than the archaic kingdoms but less than the modern, industrial civilization. This psychological view on development can in a certain way foster that impression researchers can have when comparing these cultures even without developmental psychology. Notwithstanding, the developmental approach revolutionizes the study of history.