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European Researcher. Series A – международный научный журнал по социальным наукам

E-ISSN 2224-0136

Периодичность – 1 раз в 3 месяца.
Издается с 2010 года.

3 September 25, 2019


Articles and Statements

1. Sadruddin Ebrahimi, Filiz Katman
Religion as a Soft Power in the Iranian Foreign Policy

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 134-140.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.134CrossRef

Abstract:
In recent decades, many countries have tended to use soft power as an influential tool in their foreign policies. A power that emphasizes the use of tools to create attractiveness for influencing and increasing authority in other countries. In the era of interdependence, the Islamic Republic of Iran is aware of the importance of soft power. Therefore, it takes the maximum advantage of using tools such as religion, culture and ideology in order to exercise its power over the regional countries. Specifically, the ideology of Islamic Revolution is one of the key tools that Iran uses to influence its neighboring countries. After the Islamic Revolution, Iran has been in search of new tools in order to promote its position in the Middle East; hence, it has attempted to transform every single tool as a form of soft power in order to speed up the process. In this paper, we tried to investigate the role of soft power and religion in Iran’s current position in the region. Our findings indicate that the usage of soft power has a huge impact on the current position of Iran. Particularly, religion – as a key tool of soft power – has played an important role in consolidating and promoting the regional status of the country. In the field of culture and religion, Iran has many commonalties with the regional counties. The usage of concepts such as; denial of foreign domination, Islamic justice and the unification of religion and politics has had a big impact on its usage of soft power. Therefore, Iran has used soft power as a key tool in its foreign policy in order to expand its influence in the region.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570694764.pdf
Number of views: 52      Download in PDF


2. Semih Ecin, Filiz Katman
Missle Shield Crisis and Putin’s Effect of USA-Russia Relations

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 141-147.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.141CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is about that effects of missile shield project over regional politics and Russia-USA relations. It will try to analyze Putin’s policies and strategy to struggle USA. Article aims to explain cases by the historical progress. How policies evolved between Russia and USA. USA and Russia are most powerfull of the world. The relations of the USA and Russia, who were at the same side in World War I, became a struggle of power with Tsarist Russia converting into the Soviet Union. Obama, came to power in 2008, took in means of relations with Russia is quitting the missile shield system project. Naturally this step was welcomed by Russia. After the USA retracting from implementing missile shield to the Eastern Europe, Russia has declared that it has retracted from implementing missile shield to Kaliningrad. These events are considered as developments which lowered the tense in the USA–Russia relations dramatically. Another important event is Russia’s acceptation about the USA’s sanctions on Iran. Caucasia and Central Asia policies adopted by Putin’s Russia within the scope of the USA–Russia relations, after Obama was elected as the president of the USA, has caused conflict among these two countries. This article has been prepared to present the relations of these two foremost countries specifying the research in Russia during Putin’s term in order to understand how the relations came to this state makes the study important. Thus, it is intended to explain how the relations came to this state and present the effects of the relations today. Also, presenting the impacts of presidency changes in these countries is among the aims of the article.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570695234.pdf
Number of views: 48      Download in PDF


3. Sribas Goswami
Land Acquisition and Involuntary Displacement: A Study of Changing State Society Relations

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 148-155.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.148CrossRef

Abstract:
The present study is related to the problems of land acquisition for new industrial establishment, mining-induced displacement and resettlement occurring in different regions of West Bengal, India as a highly diverse regional socioeconomic issue. The study finds the source of challenges to public law and institutions providing humanitarian assistance as well as a matter of deep concern for human rights. This study also finds various dimensions of bulk land acquisition cases in Southern Bengal and problems associated with it. Thus, the land acquisition due to coal mining is increasingly becoming a coercive operation lacking in sensitivity to human consequences involved in trail if devastation and trauma it leaves behind. The piece of work probes into the deep of land acquisition policy of state government and people’s reaction on land acquisition for establishment of new industry as well as extension of existing industry. The findings focus on various dimensions of bulk land acquisition cases in Southern Bengal and problems associated with it.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570695565.pdf
Number of views: 43      Download in PDF


4. Meryem Gulnar, Filiz Katman
Syria Policy of Russia as a Permanent Member of the United Nations Security Council

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 156-162.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.156CrossRef

Abstract:
This paper investigates the historical roots, cooperation and interests of Russia and Syria and their reflections to the world. In this paper, relations between Russia and Syria are considered as the period after the establishment of both the Soviet Union period and the Russian Federation. Relations between Russia and Syria have started to develop successfully since the early days of the USSR. Topics discussed in the thesis are the beginning of the Egyptian and Tunisian uprisings called the Arab Spring and the rise of this uprising to Syria in 2011. In addition the policies of the United Nations about these uprisings and the policies of Russia as the permanent member of the Security Council are presented. The main argument of this paper is that the main reasons of the Syrian crisis that reverberate all over the world, the source of the power of Assad, the role of Russia in the region and the interests cannot be ignored. Moreover, paper tries to explain these issues by shedding light from the theoretical window presented by realism. After the disintegration of the USSR, the traces of chaos and frustration experienced by Russia were largely erased during the period of Vladimir Putin. In the period of Putin, Russia's trade increased with increasing oil and gas revenues; living standard of the people has risen. Russia's growing economic power has drawn new horizons for foreign policy and Russia has pursued foreign policy based on power. The main reason for his support for the Assad regime is both economic and political; it tries to protect the region's power especially against the West. At the same time, with the Syrian Crisis of 2015, Russia has now shown that it can intervene as a global power in matters of its own interest not only in its own region, but in any part of the world.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570695642.pdf
Number of views: 39      Download in PDF


5. Tung Nguyen Xuan
ODA Towards the Socio-Economic Development of Vietnam Today: Current Situation and Some Recommendations

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 178-186.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.178CrossRef

Abstract:
This research presents the reasoning issues of Official Development Assistance (ODA), especially it focuses on analyzing the role of ODA capital in the current social development of Vietnam, specifically: firstly, ODA capital supplements fund for investing development; secondly, ODA helps to acquire scientific achievements, modern technology and development of human resources; thirdly, ODA assists to adjust economic structure and increase FDI. Along with that, the study assesses the current reality of the law on the management and use of ODA in order to find out the limitation, shortcomings, inconsistencies and problems arising in the implementation of the project, then it brings about the solutions to enhance the effective use of ODA, creating transparency of the Government's policies in attracting, managing and using these funds to the public in both national and international area.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570696317.pdf
Number of views: 45      Download in PDF


6. Sri Wulandari
The Role of Society in Law Enforcement Related to the Eradication of Corruption Crimes

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 187-195.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.187CrossRef

Abstract:
In eradicating corruption crimes, society’s aspirations are needed and have an important role as social control. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify efforts to prevent and eradicate corruption while upholding human rights and the interests of society. This research was conducted using qualitative descriptive methods. In legal research, it generally applies statute approach, case approach, historical approach, comparative approach, and conceptual approach. Based on Law No. 20 of 2001 concerning Amendments to Law No. 31 of 1999 concerning the Eradication of Corruption Crimes, corruption was expressly formulated as formal crime. It means that even though the results of corruption have been returned to the state, the perpetrators of corruption will still be brought to justice and the judicial process applies the burden of reverse proof that is limited or balanced. It turns out that, in this Law, the defendant’s statement is not a strong evidence because it only becomes a supporting tool to the existing evidence. This provision has become a weakness in eradicating corruption crimes because the position of the defendant’s strong statement will be a valid evidence and a legal basis for the judge to impose a criminal sentence.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570696919.pdf
Number of views: 44      Download in PDF


7. Lejla Žunić, Aida Bidžan-Gekić, Haris Gekić
Environmental Practices in Sarajevo Luxury Hotels

European Researcher. Series A, 2019, 10(3): 196-205.
DOI: 10.13187/er.2019.3.196CrossRef

Abstract:
The aim of the article was to identify and evaluate environmental practices in Sarajevo luxury hotels. The objectives were to: 1) analyse the development trend in hospitality industry; 2) present a negative environmental impacts of hotels & tourism activities; 3) present concept of green hotel; 4) identify and evaluate green attributes in lux 5-star hotels; 5) identify benefits of green hotel policy (GHP). There was given a theoretical background to show the correlation of Sarajevo tourism & hospitality development and the real need for GHP. The mix of Millar & Baloglu (2008) and GC-MARK (2013) survey models were applied to get the information on green practices in lux hotels at Sarajevo. The survey results were presented within the 5 categories: Knowledge of GHP, Energy Saving, Water Saving, Recycling & Waste Disposal and Hygienic & Re-Use Program. We found decent majority of environmental attributes in lux hotels. Therefore, energy saving is most preferred, while the water saving and recycling are the least preferred. However, the lux hotels’ participation in green practices is somewhat neutral mostly due to the lack of governmental support. The research provided green concept for hoteliers and the recommendations for sustainable hospitality.

URL: http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1570696420.pdf
Number of views: 47      Download in PDF





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