Abstract: This paper is focused on the impact of the Taliban’s reappearance on the foreign policy of Afghanistan towards Pakistan during Hamid Karzai’s period. It tries to answer the questions of ‘what impactful factors have determined Afghan foreign policy towards Pakistan’ and ‘how Islamic fundamentalism is used as a soft power instrument of Pakistan foreign policy towards Afghanistan’. In other words, it explores more the political and historical developments in Afghanistan within the designated periods-from 1947 to 2001 and the latter being 2001 to 2014. This paper consists of three main sections. The first section presents historical background of Afghanistan’s foreign policy toward Pakistan in consideration with the international developments such as Cold War and 9/11 events with a brief overview of the relations of the two countries. Furthermore in this section it attempts to explain the Durand Line and Pashtonistan problem as the main factors that have influenced the two nation’s relations. However, in the following years, while maintaining the real problem, new problems emerged. Such new problems include the Taliban group, India-Afghan relations, Transit problems and Water sharing problem. The second section presents the impact of Taliban reappearance as the most influential factors on Afghanistan's foreign policy on Pakistan in Hamid Karzai's period, especially in explaining the role of Taliban group as soft power instrument of Pakistan’s foreign policy toward Afghanistan. Furthermore, it attempts to explain the impact of what is termed as 'Pakistani double game' on the Afghanistan's peace process. It discusses Pakistan since her establishment has exercised political intervention in the Afghanistan internal affairs, as an approach in overcoming the controversial problems between the two nations. In conclusion, analysis on how the post reappearance of the Taliban served to worsen the two neighboring nations' already weak relations are provided. Pakistan's evil foreign policy following the 9/11 September has further fragmented the weak relations with Afghanistan.
Abstract: The topic of the school is presented, including the nature of the relationship between teachers and students, the formation of the identity of schoolchildren, changes in attitudes and representations of characters et all stages of the evolution of the English-language cinema. Social, political, socio-cultural events of the corresponding era are reflected in feature films Teachers and schoolchildren have typical film image stereotypes: a good/bad guy, a beauty, a villain, an intellectual, a loser, a superhero, etc.
Defenders of socially unprotected students dominate in the film images of teachers of the second half of the twentieth century. Then, more and more often, the screen present discussion image of the teacher, who often does not find a common language with students or their parents, using non-pedagogical means to achieve their professional goals. This is often reflected in his vocabulary, appearance, and manners of communication. The genre specificity of English-language films about school subjects has also substantially expanded. The comedy, melodrama and drama were dominated in the early stages of the development of cinema about school and university, but later the ribbons of this subject occupied the entire genre niche, including musicals, horror films, thrillers, science fiction, etc. The topic of social formation was gradually supplemented with stories about the love affairs of schoolchildren and teachers. Many film about school and university included the episodes of violence, cruelty, crime, racial discrimination, drug use, a realistic depiction of erotic scenes.
Abstract: This article is the first attempt to carry out hermeneutic analysis of horror films of English-speaking countries on the school-university topic. The author draws attention to the fact that the degree of reflection in the storylines of the set of student-school problems is determined by the socio-cultural and political context. Since 1970s–1980s there was a tendency of quantitative growth of horror films on the theme of school and university, specifically designed for teenage and youth audience, where students appeared as characters. The conceptual basis of the horrors of the school-university thematic segment of the English-speaking countries in the period before the 1960s and the following decades was radically different. Since the 1970s, the motives of violence, cruelty, inhumanity, sexuality have become leading. In subsequent years and to the present, these areas do not lose their relevance, but rather are modified, becoming more pronounced. Most of the horrors 1970s – 1980s contained screen violence is much less than in the 1990s. The school topic’s horrors of the 1990s used the current youth jargon and introduced into the plot of modern technology (special computer effects, such as mobile phone and Internet). In the XXI century the horror films of the English-speaking countries on the school-student theme identified several key trends: remakes; ultra violence; cyber terrorism and harassment in the network. Educational process in the English-language horrors on the topic of school and university is not important, the aspirations of students on the one hand are aimed at rest, fun, dissolute lifestyle, and on the other – at physical and psychological violence, crime, bullying, etc. Such audiovisual media texts do not always give the images of teachers and students in a positive way, however, like the entire educational process as a whole.
Abstract: Displacement constitutes a major human problem in India. It dislocates People from their home, land & environment & has traumatic consequences for their lives. Displacement can be caused by natural calamities such as flood, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake & manmade factors such as political conflict, wars & social strife. Development process, also man-made, has been added to the third source. While the first two causes have been a recurring phenomenon in the evolution of civilization, the third cause has emerged from the efforts of governments to modernize traditional societies. Of the three, the first two categories of displacement are unplanned & usually unanticipated. The third category of displacement, however, is the result of prior & conscious planning & therefore anticipated. Of the two categories of unplanned displacement, the one that is due to natural calamities is usually of a shorter duration while the rather arising out of war, political conflict, & social strife may have a little longer duration &, in some situations, even of a permanent nature if the issues giving rise to it do not set satisfactorily resolved. But displacement from development projects such as open cast coal mining is invariably permanent. This is because contemporary development is associated with big projects requiring huge areas of land, such as dams, airports, extraction of minerals, industrial plants, provisions of social service, housing etc. Present study finds the multifaceted problems of land acquisition for expansion of existing coal mines as well as establishment of new mining establishment in West Burdwan district of West Bengal, India.
Abstract: This paper is focused on an overview of the main impact of ethno-politics in Iraq, recalling the fact that politics was rebuilt with respect to religious and ethnic lines and political alliances were reshaped over these set lines. Withdrawal of American troops and internal differences of Iraqi parties triggered political balances, which are not limited into just sectarian and ethnic bases. The political and strategic effort of Arab Spring and internal power struggle among Iraqi political groups entered into a new phase in politics. The rising challenges of ethno-politically inspired conflicts in IR discipline are neither new nor unexpected. Different scholars of ethno-political studies in IR discipline have suggested different approaches to addressing ethnic inspired conflicts, which sometimes arises as a result of quest for self-determination especially when there is a growing consciousness of nationhood. These approaches include confederation, federation and political autonomy. However, most of these theories have failed to explain whether the aspiring ethno nation’s involved feels accommodated with the institutional arrangements of each approach.
Abstract: In the present paper, the author is publishing the partial results of possibilities of development of balance movement abilities in ski jumping. The main aim of the study was to do research in the changes to the level of balance abilities of the respondents after having attended 12-week long preparation. The main research method consisted of a two-group pedagogical experiment with the experimental agent represented by the proposed movement programme including the elementary and conditioning gymnastics. The current level of the movement abilities in question was diagnosed by an entry and exit examination with standardized motorics tests. Based upon the processed and statistically verified results we can confirm that the experimental agent has caused positive changes to balance abilities and therefore the movement programme we created may be regarded as effective.
Abstract: This research focuses on analyzing scopes of Land Law 2013 about enterprises in using Vietnamese agricultural land nowadays with following contents: land using forms; incentives and support of The State for enterprises in assessing and using agricultural land. Besides, it also researches and clarifies the limitations raised from the reality of implementing these scopes and then recommends to complete Land Law 2013 in the way which will make the more advantageous condition for enterprises in accessing, using agricultural land with a view to boosting the great development of Vietnamese agriculture in these days.